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Overall comparison of the three options Discussion on wyw utility parameter Option 2 only Assessment of different slopes on the basis of the five criteria set out in the earlier Commission Communications of February Monitoring and evaluation What are the core indicators of progress towards meeting the objectives?

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free relationship chat Overall comparison of the three options Discussion on the utility parameter Option 2 only Assessment of different slopes on the basis of the five criteria set out in the earlier Commission Communications of February Monitoring and evaluation What are the messaye indicators of progress towards meeting the objectives? What is the broad outline for possible monitoring and evaluation arrangements?

Procedural issues and consultation of interested parties 1. The proposal which this impact assessment accompanies follows from the mature sex chat chesterton Communications and their impact assessments, which set out the overall ambition level as well as the principles and de criteria for the future legislative framework.

Meswage and expertise In support of the earlier Communications, a first round of consultation of interested parties and of the general public was carried out by the Commission in via an online Internet consultation complemented by a dedicated working group established under the European Climate Change Programme [4]. The CARS 21 stakeholder group [5] reviewed the role of environmental policy and CO2 emissions as part of mezsage an overarching integrated policy framework for the automotive sector.

Building on this work, the following additional consultations were carried out, together with an external study aimed at investigating possible regulatory approaches to reducing CO2 from light-duty vehicles: — Between May and Julyan online internet public consultation was carried out, aimed at gathering the views of all stakeholders and members of the public on the implementation of the revised CO2 and cars strategy; — To complement this Internet consultation, a public hearing was organised by the Commission on 11 Julywhere the stakeholders directly concerned by the upcoming legislation automotive industry, suppliers, environmental NGOs, social partners, consumers… had the opportunity to present their positions.

The final report is attached in Annex II. The minimum standards for the consultation [6] have been respected, as shown by the assessment below: 1 Clear content of the consultation process The objectives of the new legislative framework and the principles for its de were clearly described on the public consultation website. The public hearing has been publicised to relevant stakeholders as sex vidio chat as widely through a press release.

The Commission services have made clear how comments received would be dealt with and how the process would proceed.

It was therefore necessary to involve in the consultation automotive industry and the related branches, which would be affected by the regulation, such as automotive suppliers, environmental organisations, the Member States and the large public. The different industries were represented mainly through EU wide organisations. Interested parties were aware that there was to be consultation on the issues to be addressed in line with the better regulation principles.

A special website was created for the public consultation and the public hearing. It has given 10 full weeks for the submissions of written comments to the public consultation. Stakeholders have been given adequate time to provide written comments to the public consultation, as well as make a public statement in the public hearing. Overall, the Commission has been in ongoing dialogue with stakeholders and met with all interested stakeholders requesting so. All stakeholders should therefore be able to express their views.

The Commission has not responded to the points raised in individual responses given the wide range of issues raised, it was however able to identify the main issues. The Commission has analysed the comments made, and the of the consultation are presented in Annex III. Input from stakeholders has been taken into in assessing the different possible options to regulate CO2 emissions from cars, particularly with regard to the de of the legislation, possible unwanted effects, implications for competition on automotive markets, global industrial competitiveness and environmental outcome.

External expertise was used to assess the various options available, man seeking woman text aspects raised during the consultation process the external contractor attended the public hearing and was informed about the of the Internet consultation. Inter-institutional process so far 1. Council The earlier Communications have been well received in the Council. The Competitiveness Council, in Maysupported "an integrated approach as proposed by the Commission, for reducing CO2 emissions from motor vehicles" and underlined "that all the players must make their contribution to reducing emissions harmful to the climate" and that "the opportunity for a regulatory framework which is cost-effective, ensures affordable mobility and contributes to preserving the global competitiveness of the automotive industry".

The Environment Council, in June"urged the European Commission to come forward, as soon as possible and before the end ofwith a legislative framework to reduce CO2 emissions from cars … " These two Council formations, as well as the Transport Council in Junecalled "on the Commission to configure the planned framework for attaining the target for average CO2 emissions from the fleet of new cars sold in the EU on the basis of a thorough impact assessment in a way that is as neutral as possible from the point of view of competition, and which is socially equitable and sustainable.

It should be framed in such a way as to ensure that all manufacturers intensify their efforts to make their whole vehicle production more environmentally friendly in a cost-effective way". It online sex chat indian girls also recommended that carmakers should be allowed to exclude from the scheme up to vehicles per year, and that carmakers selling less than of the consultation of the Impact Assessment Board Two draft versions of the impact assessment report have been submitted to the Impact Assessment Board.

The discussion has triggered substantial improvements in the methodology applied for the assessment of the policy options. In its final opinion, the Board stated [7] that the IA contains robust analysis of impacts and an appropriate range of options, based i. The final opinion recalled some more technical aspects that, given the importance of the proposal, needed to be clarified. These comments have been taken on board in the final draft of the IA as follows: — The impact of the different policy options on the fleet composition section 5.

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The methodology is described with further details section 5. Problem definition 2. What is the issue or problem that may require action? However, improvements in fuel efficiency have been offset mainly by the increase messqge demand for transport and vehicle size.

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This is partly linked to the limited progress in fuel efficiency improvements, and partly linked to the increase in demand for transport chat towson vehicle size. This has a ificant impact on the EU's security of energy supply and makes the EU economies more susceptible to oil shocks.

The automotive industry itself is a ificant source of employment and growth in many regions of the EU. The European automotive industry is a major component of Europe's manufacturing base. Consequently, the legislative framework must be deed in a way that does not undermine affordable mobility and ogden gay chat free the global competitiveness of the automotive industry in Europe and its role in contributing to the Growth and Jobs agenda.

As a result, the Commission has decided to propose a legislative framework to implement the "integrated approach" as described in Section 1. These are as follows: " The legislative framework will be compatible with the overall objective of reaching the EU's Kyoto targets The specific problem which needs to addressed is how to de the legislative instrument which reflects the above criteria as set by the Commission. What are the underlying drivers of the problem?

As far as overall CO2 emissions from road transport are concerned, a wide range of factors wyw the observed and predicted growth in CO2 emissions from passenger hoard transport, chat rooms danger as supply and demand for cars, individual mobility needs, the availability of alternative public transport services and the costs of car ownership. Increase in demand for transport [8] While vehicle efficiency has been increasing stkck a certain extent, this has been offset by increased journey lengths and other trends leading to higher greenhouse gas emissions.

The overall share of cars in passenger traffic has remained fairly constant over the years Transport demand has for its part grown ificantly and the of passenger-kilometres driven by passenger cars increased by This trend towards bigger and more powerful cars is explained by the evolution of manufacturers' offer and consumer demand, and by the measures and strategies adopted to messags these two parameters such as advertising practices, fuel efficiency labelling etc.

A market environment characterised by cost competition and the fact that vehicle manufacturers need to sell cars in order bowrd gain revenue from related products and services have also created a situation whereby consumer prices for cars have increased ificantly less than headline inflation over the last years, de mezsage making better equipped, cleaner and more powerful cars cheaper than in the past [9]. Figure 2 and Figure 3, showing a clearly identifiable "wave-effect" towards reduced CO2 emissions and an increase in the sales of low emitting vehicles.

Global perspective The EU has one of the most fuel efficient new car fleets in the world, which needs to be considered from the angle of the global competitiveness of the European automotive industry: the promotion of fuel efficiency will create a first mover advantage especially gay web chat sites the hot babes chat of the penetration of emerging markets where oil is already scarce.

The EU has thus an interest in promoting fuel efficiency in vehicles in other parts of the world, where it will be able to reap the rewards of its technological leadership in this field. Teenspot chat the same time, the ambition level of the domestic targets and the way in which they are implemented must take into the short-term competitiveness of the European automotive industry. An underlying driver of the limited progress in the CO2 reductions observed up to is linked to the lack of truly level playing field amongst carmakers: this situation stems from the fact that so far a voluntary approach was pursued under which it appears that manufacturers have applied very varying degrees of effort in delivering the reductions that were required.

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It may thus be that the approach masturbation chat online so far did not provide for sufficient pressure amongst stakeholders to ensure the overall delivery of the EU objectives. Consumers of motor vehicles are also affected by possible changes messwge the level of performance power, comfort of new vehicles. Conversely, poor fuel efficiency contributes to an enhanced dependency on foreign oil imports and to stpck related exposure to possible price surges due to supply shortages.

As the level of ambition sought by the legislative framework has been set already, the distributional effects of the stcok legislation will be of key importance as these will determine how the legislative framework will impact individual carmakers, their production costs, the retail price of their products and profit margins. The EU is the largest car market in the world and stricter fuel efficiency requirements in Europe will affect those girls camera chat manufacturers who sell their products on the EU market by requiring improvements to new vehicles through the development and introduction of better technologies.

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Component suppliers will also be affected by increasing demand for advanced technologies and higher pressure on costs as a result of the impact of the delivery of the targets on consumer prices. How would the problem evolve, all things being equal? Figure 4 presents the evolution of the average specific CO2 emissions from new cars sold in the EU over the period.

The analysis of the reduction trends over this period shows that prior to the messwge into force of the car industry's voluntary commitmentsthe average yearly reduction ranged in the order of 2 grams per year; in the absence of a dedicated policy instrument, this could be considered an "autonomous" improvement implemented by carmakers without regulatory push.

In the early years of the Commitmentsthe yearly reduction rate increased ificantly, up to 5 grams per year, but subsequently slowed down at grams per year up to While it is difficult to precisely predict what dtock average new car emission would be in in the absence of additional measures, it is useful to establish some considerations for a baseline against which various options will be compared. Several influences need to be factored in.

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In order to provide a basis for the assessment of the future legislative framework, baseline assumptions have been made and are presented in section 4. Subsidiarity principle The subsidiarity principle is respected, since the policy objectives cannot be sufficiently achieved by actions of the Member States, and can be better achieved at Community level.

European Community action is necessary because of the need to avoid the emergence of barriers to the single market notably in the field of the automotive industry, and because of the transnational nature of climate change. At the national level, Member States can monitor the average specific CO2 emissions of the new cars registered in their territory for the purpose of compilation and comparison at the EU level against the established target.

However, in view of the widely varying characteristics of the new cars sold in the various EU Member States, domestic action would not allow for the achievement of a target defined flirting text for him the average of the EU new car sales. Taking a wider perspective, Member States can also facilitate the implementation of the legislation via action at the national level, notably to raise awareness about climate change and drive consumer demand towards more fuel efficient vehicles.

Objectives 3. The legislative framework will be compatible with the overall messae of reaching the EU's Kyoto targets. Consistency with horizontal objectives of the European Union 3. Tighter requirements on CO2 emissions and fuel efficiency for passenger cars will encourage the development and application of new environmental technologies. The policy objectives therefore mesaage innovation bard technological development, enabling the EU car industry to achieve global leadership stofk the field of clean and fuel efficient technologies.

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Europe already has world leading diesel engine technology, and will be able to further develop this technology while making advances in petrol engines fuel efficiency and hybrid powertrains. Leadership in fuel efficiency should in the short term pave the way to american red cross margate of technologies and vehicles to emerging markets where oil is scarce and that have set ambitious fuel efficiency targets.

In the longer term, it is expected to provide a long-standing competitive edge and the advanced technologies required to move towards boadr truly low-carbon road transport system. By promoting further advances in technologies, the strategy will promote highly qualified jobs in Europe.

Although the industry has pointed to the risk of the production capacity being relocated outside the EU to reduce labour costs while meeting fuel efficiency standards, it should be noted that non-EU manufacturers from Japan, Korea and the United States will be subject to the same standards as regards their exports to Europe, and that stringent fuel efficiency policies are already implemented in their domestic market and, in some cases, currently subject to a revision.

It should, however, be noted that those European producers that have proportionally higher sales on the European market will be proportionally more affected by the new policy instrument than some of their international competitors. To ensure that the new legislative framework is in line with the Lisbon Strategy, augsburg phone chat de of the instrument will seek to minimise the cost consequences to manufacturing and to consumers while ensuring that the diverse nature of the European car industry which plays a substantial role in its global competitiveness is preserved.

The policy objectives of the revised CO2 and cars strategy are in line with the RSDS by contributing to a more sustainable mobility. Making transport more sustainable would facilitate achieving other sustainable development goals. This relationship is particularly strong between transport and climate change, public health, conservation of natural resources and social inclusion. Leaner vehicles will bring economic, social and environmental benefits by reducing the energy consumption induced by their use.

The implementation of the RSDS also means that challenges must be addressed in parallel in the face of sometimes conflicting objectives.

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